You can read this article Open Source until the 21st of October 2018 here: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1Xf4V_9CgQJaj
The IUCN Red List of Ecosystems has made some great strides over the last few years, with over 1,500 ecosystems assessed in 90 countries. However, the application of the protocol to offshore marine ecosystems has been lacking. To date, only 10% of ecosystems listed on the global Red List belong to the marine realm, and these are mostly coral reefs and coastal ecosystems. Yet current evidence shows that offshore marine ecosystems are at considerable risk from regime shifts, mostly due to fishing and environmental change.
It can be difficult to assess risks to marine ecosystems because unlike most terrestrial ecosystems, we cannot simply map their distributions and call it a risk assessment (oh no! a car park has replaced my favourite forest!). We need to look at the functioning of the ecosystem – the…
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